IoT describes a world where just about anything can be connected and communicate in an intelligent fashion. The IoT has moved far beyond its original emphasis on machine-to-machine applications for manufacturing and business, and is now within everyone's reach. There were more than 50 billion IoT devices as of 2020, which are expected to generate 4.4 zettabytes of data, compared to just 100 billion gigabytes in 2013.
IoT wearables enable people to better understand their own health and allow physicians to remotely monitor patients. This technology also enables companies to track the health and safety of their employees, which is especially useful for workers employed in hazardous conditions. IoT Intelligent Applications are prebuilt software-as-a-service applications that can analyze and present captured IoT sensor data to business users via dashboards. A host of network protocols for the internet has made it easy to connect sensors to the cloud and to other “things” for efficient data transfer. One likely trend is that, as the IoT develops, it could be that less data will be sent for processing in the cloud. To keep costs down, more processing could be done on-device with only the useful data sent back to the cloud – a strategy known as 'edge computing'.
These sensors create a network of intelligent sensors that are able to collect, process, transfer, and analyze valuable information in different environments, such as connecting in-home monitoring devices to hospital-based systems. Other consumer devices to encourage healthy living, such as connected scales or wearable heart monitors, are also a possibility with the IoT. End-to-end health monitoring IoT platforms are also available for antenatal and chronic patients, helping one manage health vitals and recurring medication requirements. One key application of a smart home is to provide assistance for those with disabilities and elderly individuals. These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner's specific disabilities. Voice control can assist users with sight and mobility limitations while alert systems can be connected directly to cochlear implants worn by hearing-impaired users.
Heavy processing requirements use more battery power harming IoT's ability to operate. Scalability is easy because IoT devices simply supply data through the internet to a server with sufficient processing power. There are several planned or ongoing large-scale deployments of the IoT, to enable better management of cities and systems. For example, Songdo, South Korea, the first of its kind fully equipped and wired smart city, is gradually being built, with approximately 70 percent of the business district completed as of June 2018. Much of the city is planned to be wired and automated, with little or no human intervention. IoT devices are in use monitoring the environments and systems of boats and yachts.
Often the route a packet needs to take through a network is not immediately available. Using a WAN, schools in Florida can communicate with places like Tokyo in a matter of seconds, without paying enormous phone bills. Two users a half-world apart with workstations equipped with microphones and a webcams might teleconference in real time. It uses multiplexers, bridges, and routers to connect local and metropolitan networks to global communications networks like the Internet. To users, however, a WAN will not appear to be much different than a LAN.
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The integration of smart devices in the built environment and how they might be used in future applications. The concept of the "Internet of Things" and the term itself, first appeared in a speech by Peter T. Lewis, to the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation 15th Annual Legislative Weekend in Washington, D.C, published in September 1985. According to Lewis, "The Internet of Things, or IoT, is the integration of people, processes and technology with connectable devices and sensors to enable remote monitoring, status, manipulation and evaluation of trends of such devices." IoT evolved from M2M communication, i.e., machines connecting to each other via a network without human interaction.
The infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the same company, or they may be operated by different entities. Traditionally, many countries have had a national airline and national railway. International shipping remains a highly competitive industry with little regulation, but ports can be public-owned.